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A brief history of HEV and EV

A brief history of HEV and EV
  • The world consumes approximately 85 million barrels of oil every day but there are only 1300 billion barrels of proven reserves of oil. At the current rate of consumption, the world will run out of oil in 42 years. New discoveries oil reserves are at a slower pace than the increase in demand.
  • Climate change: The emissions from burning fossil fuels increase the carbon dioxide CO2 concentration which leads to a global temperature increase and extreme weather conditions in many parts of the world. The long term consequences of global warming can lead to rising sea levels and instability of ecosystems.
  • The current model of the personal transportation is not sustainable in the long run because the earth has limited reserves of fossil fuel, which provide 97% of all transportation energy needs at the present time.
  • Many analysts in the theory of peak oil at the present time, which predicts that oil production is at its peak in history, and will soon be below oil demand. The gap generated by demand and production will cause another and probably eventual energy crisis without careful planning beforehand.
  • Economic growth relies heavily on energy supply. For example, from 1999 to 2009, China’s economy attained an average growth rate of more than 10%. In the same period, Energy demand increased by more than 15% per year. In the early 1990s, China’s oil production was sufficient to support its own economy, but by the year 2009, China imported a large portion of its oil consumption, estimated at 40%.
  • In 2009, the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard, known as the CAFÉ Standard, requiring that all manufacturers achieve an average fuel economy of 35 MPG (Miles per gallon) by 2020. This is equivalent to 6,7l/100km. This new legislation is a major step forward to effectively reduce energy consumption and CO2 To achieve this goal: First, auto makers must shift from large cars and pickup trucks to smaller vehicles to balance the portfolio. Second, auto makers must continue to develop technology that supports fuel efficiency improvements in conventional gasoline engines. Lastly and most importantly, auto makers have to increase HEV.
  • EVs were invented in 1834, that is, about 60 years earlier than gasoline – powered cars, which were invented in 1895. By 1900, there were 4200 automobiles sold in the united states, of which 40% were electric cars. HEVs, together with EVs, faded away by 1930 and the electric car companies all failed. There were many reasons leading to the disappearance of the EV and HEV. When compared to gasoline powered cars, EVs and HEVs:    Were more expensive than gasoline cars; Were less powerful than gasoline cars due to the limited power from the onboard battery;  Had limited range between each charge; And needed many hours to recharge the onboard battery.
  • It was until the Arab oil embargo in 1973 that the soaring price of gasoline sparked new interest in EVs. The US congress introduced the electric and hybrid vehicle research, development, and demonstration act in 1976 recommending the use of EVs as a mean of reducing oil dependency and air pollution. In 1990, the California Air Resource Board (CARB), in consideration of the smog affecting Southern California, passed the zero emission vehicle (ZEV) mandate, which required 2% of vehicles sold in California to have no emissions by 1998 and 10% by 2003. California car sales have approximately a 10% share of the total car sales in the united states. Major car manufacturers were afraid that they might lose the California Car market without a ZEV. Hence, every auto maker developed EV s and HEVs. Many EVs were made, such as GM’s EV1, Ford’s Ranger pickup EV, Honda’s EV Plus, Nissan‘s Altra EV, and Toyota’s RAV4 EV.
  • The world’s automotive history turned to a new page in 1997 when the first modern hybrid electric car, the Toyota Prius, was sold in Japan. This car, along with Honda’s Insight and Civic HEVs, has been available in the United States since 2000. These early HEVs marked a radical change in type of cars offered to the public: vehicles that take advantage of the benefits of both battery EVs and conventional gasoline powered vehicles.

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